Visnyk LNAU: Agronomy 2018 №22(2): 96-102
INFLUENCE OF ROOTSTOCK-SCION COMBINATIONS AND CONDITIONS OF THE YEAR ON SWEET CHERRY FRUIT QUALITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SOUTHERN STEPPE OF UKRAINE
Bondarenko Р., Research Assistant
Melitopol Fruit Growing Research Station (MFGRS) named after M.F. Sydorenko of IH NAAS
The results of the research on determining the effect of cultivars, rootstocks and interstems on sweet cherry fruit quality in the Southern Steppe of Ukraine are presented in the article.
As of recent, Ukraine shows a significant interest for selling sweet cherry on export markets. Mean fruit weight and diameter are the determining indicators of the marketability of sweet cherry fruits. According to the Ukrainian State Standard, the fruits of the first commercial grade for sweet cherry should have a diameter of not less than 18 mm. At the same time, the requirements of the global fresh fruit market are higher. In addition, the biochemical composition of cherries and their impact on human health are of considerable interest.
The field trial, set in 2016–2018, had three cultivars of Ukrainian origin – Valery Chkalov, Melitopolska chorna, and Krupnoplidna. Each of the cultivars was grafted on Mahaleb seedlings with VSL-2 interstem, as well as on just Mahaleb (control). Length of the interstem was 20 cm. Trees in the orchard were in the state of full production. Mean fruit weight, diameter, share of the pit in fruits was determined. Analysis of biochemical composition of the fruits included dry soluble solids, sugars, titratable acids, and ascorbic acid content. Statistical analysis of data consisted of ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation.
All studied varieties exceeded the requirements of State Standard to the minimum diameter of the fruits, which indicates their high quality. During the years of research, Krupnoplidna cultivar had the biggest fruits, followed by Valery Chkalov and Melitopolska chorna. At the same time, Melitopolska chorna cultivar was characterized by the most consistent fruits (86.4% of the fruits were in range of “mean diameter ± 1 mm”).
In non-irrigated conditions that are traditional for cultivating sweet cherries in the Southern Steppe of Ukraine, the use of the combination Mahaleb / VSL-2 did not lead to the reduction of mean fruit weight and diameter compared to trees grafted on vigorous rootstock. In addition, the use of interstem on Valery Chkalov and Krupoplidna cultivats allowed to increase the content of dry soluble solids by an average of 14%, total sugars - by 10%, and on Krupoplidna cultivar - also the content of ascorbic acid by 36%.
Considering the positive influence of researched factors on mean fruit weight and diameter, biochemical composition of fruits, combinations Mahaleb / VSL-2 / Kropoplidna and Mahaleb / VSL-2 / Valery Chkalov can be recommended for use in commercial orchards.
sweet cherry, orchard systems, weather conditions, fruit quality, biochemical composition of fruits
- Kramer S. Intensive sweet cherry crop. Moscow: Agropromizdat, 1987. 168 p.
- Vigorov L.I. Biologically active compounds of sweet and sour cherry fruits. Sweet and sour cherry: Symposium reports on June 11-15, 1973, Melitopol, USSR / ed. by H. K. Enikeev. Kyiv: Urozhay, 1975. P. 258–262.
- Ballistreri G., Continella A., Gentile A., Amenta M., Fabroni S., Rapisarda R. Fruit quality and bioactive compounds relevant to human health of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Italy. Food chemistry. 2013. 140(4). P. 630–638. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.024
- McCune L. M., Kubota C., Stendell-Hollis N. R., Thomson C. A. Cherries and health: a review. Critical Reviews In Food Science And Nutrition. 2010. Vol. 51, Iss. 1. P. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390903001719
- Senina E.P. Sweet cherry culivars for freezing. Sweet and sour cherry: Symposium reports on June 11-15, 1973, Melitopol, USSR / ed. by H.K. Enikeev. Kyiv: Urozhay, 1975. P. 272–274.
- GSTU 01.1.37.165:2004 Fresh sweet cherry. Technical conditions.
- Simon G., Hrotko K., Magyar L. Fruit quality of sweet cherry cultivars grafted on four different rootstocks. International Journal of Horticultural Science. 2004. 10(3). P. 59–62.
- Gonçalves, B. et al. Scion-rootstock interaction affects the physiology and fruit quality of sweet cherry. Tree Physiol. 2006. Vol. 26. P. 93–104. https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/26.1.93
- Kishchak O.A. Basics of industrial sweet cherry cultivation in Forest-Steppe of Ukraine: monography. Kyiv: Agrarian science, 2017. 240 p.
- Usenik V., Fajt N., Mikulic-Petkovsek M., Slatnar A., Stampar F., Veberic R. Sweet cherry pomological and biochemical characteristics influenced by rootstock. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010.Vol. 58. P. 4928–4933. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf903755b
- Correia S., Schouten R., Silva A.P., Gonçalves B. Factors affecting quality and health promoting compounds during growth and postharvest life of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Frontiers in Plant Science. 2017. Vol. 8. P. 21–66. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.02166
- Kondratenko P. V., Bublik M. O. Methods of setting field trials for fruit crops. Kyiv: Agrarian science, 1996. 96 p.
- Kondratenko P. V., Shevchuk L. M., Levchuk L. M. Methods of evaluation of quality of fruits and berries. Kyiv, 2008. 80 p.
- Ruisa S. Fruit quality of sweet cherries grown in Latvia. Acta Hortic. Vol. 795. 2008. P. 883–888. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2008.795.143
- Kappel F., Fisher-Fleming B., Hogue E. Fruit characteristics and sensory attributes of an ideal sweet cherry. HortScience. 1996. Vol. 31(3). P. 443–446.
- Cantín C. M., Pinochet J., Gogorcena Y., Moreno M. Á. Growth, yield and fruit quality of ‘Van’ and ‘Stark Hardy Giant’ sweet cherry cultivars as influenced by grafting on different rootstocks. Scientia Horticulturae. 2010. Vol. 123, No. 3. P. 329–335. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2009.09.016
- Santos A., Santos-Ribeiro R., Cavalheiro J. et. al. Initial growth and fruiting of ‘Summit’ sweet cherry (Prunus avium) on five rootstocks. New Zealand Journal of Crop And Horticultural Science. 2006. Vol. 34., Iss. 3. P. 269–277. https://doi.org/10.1080/01140671.2006.9514416
- Lang G. Precocious, dwarfing, and productive—how will new cherry rootstocks impact the sweet cherry industry? HortTechnology. 2000. Vol.10(4). P. 719–725. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.10.4.719
- Bielicki P., Rozpara E. Growth and yield of ‘Kordia’ sweet cherry trees with various rootstock and interstem combinations. Journal of Fruit and Ornamental Plant Research. 2010. Vol. 18(1). P. 45–50.
- Bandi A., Thiesz R., Ferencz L., Bandi M.-J. Some physical and biochemical compositions of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit. Acta Universitatis Sapientae: Agriculture and Environment. 2010. Vol. 2. P. 5–16.
- Milošević T., Milošević N., Glišić I., Nikolić R., Milivojević J. Early tree growth, productivity, fruit quality and leaf nutrients content of sweet cherry grown in a high density planting system. Horticultural Science. 2015. Vol. 42(1). P. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.17221/119/2014-HORTSCI
- Blazková, J. The value of stone characters for the identification of sweet cherry cultivars. Acta Hortic. 1988. Vol. 224.P. 285–294. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.1988.224.35
- Recognized cultivars of fruit and berry crops of Imstitute of irrigated horticulture selection: Directory / ed. by M. I. Turovtsev, V. O. Turovtseva. Kyiv: Agrarian science, 2002. 148 p.