Visnyk LNAU: Agronomy 2018 №22(2): 87-90
THE NAMES OF ECONOMIC VALUABLE SPECIES OF THE FRAGARIA L. GENUS
Rozhko I., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Hel I., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Lviv National Agrarian University
The paper considers the main classification features of the most common species of the Fragaria L. genus in order to evaluate their significance for human economic activity. F. vesca L. (2n = 14) is the most common species in Europe, North America, Asia, and North Africa. Due to its high winter resistance, early ripening and aroma of berries, the species matters in selection. F. viridis Weston (2n = 14) is a widespread species in Europe, it also reaches Baikal and Yakutia in Asia. The species is rarely cultivated. Fruits are harvested in natural populations. F. orientalis Losinsk, (2n = 4x = 28) is an extremely polymorphic species that grows in Altai, Western Siberia, Yakutia, Transbaikal, Mongolia, Northern China and Korea. The species is not cultivated. Separate ecotypes may be important in selection as winter hardy and early ripening species. F. moschata Weston (2n = 6x = 42) is widespread from Northern and Central Europe to Siberia. The plants are dioecious. The plants are winter-hardy, resistant to powdery mildew, anthracnose, hook-worms, ticks, that is why this species is important for selective breeding. F. virginiana Mill. (2n = 8x = 56) prevails in North America. The species is promising for selective breeding. F. chiloensis (L.) Duchesne ex Weston (2n = 8x = 56) is prevalent in the western part of the American continent from Chile to California. The plants are dioecious. Both Chilean strawberries and Virginia strawberries appeared on the European continent after the discovery of the New World. They used to be widely cultivated in gardens until the appearance of garden strawberry. F. xananassa (Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier, F. xgrandiflora Ehrh. (2n = 8x = 56) appeared in Europe at the end of the ХVІІcentury as a result of spontaneous cross breeding of two American octopoid species – Virginia strawberries and Chilean strawberries. In 1766, a French botanist and researcher A. N. Duchesne isolated a separate species, which combined the features of two original parent species, but in contrast to them it formed strong-grown crops with large fruits. Scientific names of species are presented in accordance with the nomenclature of the Fragaria L. genus ordered by V. M. Mezhenskyi.
It also substantiates the necessity of using the correct scientific Ukrainian name of the species, the main among the species of the Fragaria L. genus – Sunytsi, in industrial culture – garden strawberry.
scientific name, genus, species, garden strawberry, hill strawberry
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