Structure and dynamic of soybean diseases development in conditions of the Educational-Research Center of Lviv National Agrarian University

Visnyk LNAU: Agronomy 2020 №24: 168-171

Structure and dynamic of soybean diseases development in conditions of the Educational-Research Center of Lviv National Agrarian University

Yu. Holiachuk, Candidate of Biological Science
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2890-164X
H. Kosylovych, Candidate of Biological Science
ORCID ID: 0000-0001-5908-3312
Lviv National Agrarian University

https://doi.org/10.31734/agronomy2020.01.168

Annotation

In Ukraine, the sowing area under soybean has increased more than 26 times for the last 20 years. The increasing of areas under the crop leads to changing and usually worsening of the phytosanitary status of the crops. In the previous years, the fungicides were not used in soybean agrotechnologies in Ukraine since the diseases didn’t have significant development. In the last years, the fungicides have got increasing importance, because not only agrotechnical and immunological measures of plant protection against diseases are not enough. The soybean yield losses from diseases account for 15–30 % and, at epiphytotic years, they reach 50 %. The effective plant protection against pathogenic microorganisms is impossible without monitoring of phytosanitary status of crops. The structure and dynamic of the main diseases of soybean variety, i.e. Mentor, were determined in the Educational-Research Center of Lviv National Agrarian University in 2017–2019. The main soybean diseases included fungal diseases and diseases, caused by fungi-like organisms. The share of them in the disease structure was 90%. Except for mycoses, the symptoms of bacterial and viral diseases were detected on soybean plants. In 2017–2019, the predominant diseases included downy mildew and Septoria spot with the part in diseases structure equal to 25 % and 23 % respectively. Among others, in the diseases structure of soybean there were detected such diseases as Fusarium wilt and root rot (9 %), frog-eye spot (Cercospora spot) and Ascochyta spot (8% each), white mold (Whetzelinia sclerotiorum) and Alternaria spot (6 % each) and anthracnose (5%). The excessive rainfall in June-August 2018 facilitated to a faster development of main soybean diseases as compared to the 2017 and 2019 growing seasons. Thus, in the late August 2018, the downy mildew and Septoria spot development reached 17.4 % and 16.5 %, respectively. The development of Fusarium disease, Ascochyta spot and Cercospora spot reached 4.8–5.6 %. The least development of main diseases that was detected in the last decade of August was observed in the conditions of 2017, i.e. 3.2–5.8 %.

Key words

soybean, disease, mycosis, disease structure, part of disease, dynamic of disease development

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