Determination of the most adaptive varieties of winter wheat of different breeding centers in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine

Visnyk LNAU: Agronomy 2020 №24: 147-153

Determination of the most adaptive varieties of winter wheat of different breeding centers in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine

H. Chuhrii, Postgraduate student
ORCID ID: 0000-0001-5612-9135
O. Viniukov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2957-5487
O. Bondareva, Candidate of Engineering Sciences
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-8128-8485
Donetsk State Agricultural Science Station of NAAS of Ukraine

https://doi.org/10.31734/agronomy2020.01.147

Annotation

The research presents results of researches in the direction of the most adaptive winter wheat varieties of different breeding centers in the conditions of the Northern Steppe of Ukraine on the indicators of yield, winter hardiness, and drought resistance. Selection of the studied varieties was carried out according to the productivity of the ear (ear length, weight of grains in ear, number of grains in ear). The attention was also paid to determining the main features: plant height, coefficient of productive tillering, weight of 1000 grains. It was revealed that in the first stages of organogenesis of wheat varieties of winter steppe ecotype formed biometric indicators, which significantly exceeded those of forest-steppe ecotype varieties.

It is established that the weather conditions of autumn 2018–2019 contributed to the activation of the growth processes of wheat winter varieties of environmental testing. The highest winter plants were in the Divo Donetske (16,9 cm) and the lowest in the Ovidii variety (8.3 cm). Plant height of winter wheat varieties was within 12.5 cm. cm). The highest winter wheat plants were in the varieties of Pryvitna (113.3 cm), Donetska 48 (112.8 cm), Divo Donetske (109.0), Komerciyna (107.8 cm). The lowest plants were wheat varieties winter Bohynia (86.4 cm), Popeliushka (87.5 cm), Kontanta (88.8 cm).

It has been proven that many factors affect winter wheat yield patterns during the growing season. Only the complex adaptive ability of the variety to withstand the negative factors in the critical phases of crop development ensure forming high indicators of the yield structure, which, in turn, secure the plants productivity.

During the years of the research, the best sorts of ecological sort test, in relation to the variety Donetska 48, provided varieties of Peremoha – 8.4 t/ha, Natalka – 8.1 t/ha, Kraplyna, Pryvitna, Kontanta, Zhytnitsa – 8 t/ha, Popeliushka and Zhuravka – 7.9 t/ha. Bilosnizhka and Slavna varieties formed yields at the standard level – 7.8 t/ha.

It is revealed that the level of grain productivity of winter wheat in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine indicates satisfactory realization of productivity potential by plants of that crop. Irrespective of the growing conditions, winter wheat remains the leader in the occupied areas in the conditions of the steppe zone of Ukraine.

Key words

winter wheat, growing technology, varieties, productivity, structure, mass of 1000 grains, productivity

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