HISTORICAL PARTS OF SETTLEMENTS: BUILDING PECULIARITIES

Visnyk LNAU: Architecture and Farm Building 2019 №20: 156-160

HISTORICAL PARTS OF SETTLEMENTS: BUILDING PECULIARITIES

H. Nesterenko, PhD
Lviv National Agrarian University
V. Urbaniavichus, Lecturer
І. Urbaniavichene, Lecturer
Kauno Kolegija
Ye. Laveikina, PhD
Ecological College of Lviv National Agrarian University

https://doi.org/10.31734/architecture2019.20.156

Annotation

Unfortunately, nowadays Ukraine has no a complex approach to protection of the historical parts of settlements and the required city-planning documentation is out-of-date and irrelevant. Currently, 401 settlements of Ukraine have the status of historical settlements, and only 24% of them have adopted historical-architectural basic plans (HABP), which determine boundaries of the historical areas and regimes of use of the area of protected monuments. Thus, it is necessary to study the opportunity to stimulate local authorities to develop HABP and to introduce the mechanisms of those territories protection.

The present study is forced by absence of a complex approach to protection of the historical areas and their further development, caused by the outdated and irrelevant city-planning documentation. Disorganized building system only ruins the territory with a many-century history and culture. Thus, the Ministry for Regional Development, Construction and Public Housing and Utilities of Ukraine has initiated the work concerning regulation of the issues of those areas protection.

HABP includes consolidated information about the objects of cultural heritage, historical development, natural monuments, natural reserves, precious natural landscapes, and primarily, about the boundaries of a historical area and regimes for that area, particularly permissible height of constructions and other parameters of works, which can be performed there.

Thus, it is a good idea to require developing and approval of a HABP. However, is it easy to be fulfilled? The work considers the problem on the example of the city of Lviv.

According to the Procedure, acknowledgement of a settlement as a historical place, or as a historical settlement, i.e. city, town or village, which has partially or completely saved its historical area with the objects of cultural heritage and related plans and forms of constructions, periods of development, typical for some cultures, and is in the List of historical settlements.

The city of Lviv is taken as an object of the study. It has been in the List of the objects of the UNESCO World heritage since 1998 by two cultural criteria. One of them confirms a considerable mutual influence of human values during a definite period or in some cultural space, in architecture or in technologies, in monumental art, in city planning or landscaping.

On March 24, 2016, there was an open discussion as to the updated HABP of the territory of the historical center of Lviv (Developed by the PE «Yarko and Co», nowadays, it is called PE «ARCHITECTURAL BUREAU PRAKTYKA»). The greatest discussion concerned the stage of approval of the Historical-architectural basic plan of the total historical part of Lviv, the work, which had been developed in 2005 and was not approved by the Ministry of Culture in Kyiv because of juridical-legal contradictories, independent of the authors. The decision is sabotaged by the central power authorities.

That basic plan demonstrates architectural monuments of the national and local significance, protected area of monuments, monuments of garden and park art, churches and cathedrals, monasteries, cemeteries, historical monuments, monuments of architecture. The plan specifies a considerable historical construction, ribbon historical building, low-value, architecturally expressive buildings of the 2nd half of the 20th century. It was the initial stage of work with the basic plan.

Another presentation of a different HABP of the city of Lviv was held on October 24, 2019 in Lviv. It was developed by a Kyiv enterprise called Amalgamation of the citizens «Institute of cultural heritage» of the Ukrainian council on protection of the cultural heritage of Ukraine. The enterprise won the tender in April 2017. Community of the city has much criticism to the document, particularly to graphical materials and to historical information. The document contains many confused dates and facts, and some monument are completely «lost». The designers have dropped the monuments by the kind of city planning, i.e. complexes or assemblies of monasteries, churches, educational establishments, palaces, etc. In the city view, they have omitted the city-planning complexes of mansion parts, which have been recently heavily destroyed.

According to the Convention about protection of the world cultural and natural heritage, that document had to be developed in 1989, when Lviv was introduced into the List of the world heritage. However, it is still not available.

Development of a historical-architectural basic plan aims to simplify the procedure of composing and approval of the scientific-project documentation on construction, reconstruction of buildings in the historical settlements.

The approved historical-architectural basic plan, which supplies the information about objects of cultural heritage, regimes and threshold parameters of the building scheme, will save our historical heritage and simultaneously increase the economic potential of the city. Modern constructions are relevant on outlying areas. They stimulate move of the business by creating of the concentrated areas of work application, and improving the comfort level for local residents.

Key words

historical settlements, territory use regime, historical-architectural basic plan

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