THE ROLE OF FOUNTAINS IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS OF L'VIV

Visnyk LNAU: Architecture and Farm Building 2017 №18: 123-127

THE ROLE OF FOUNTAINS IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS OF L'VIV

O. Voloshenko, senior lecturer
Lviv National Agrarian University

https://doi.org/10.31734/architecture2017.18.123

Annotation

The mass character of visiting parks, gardens and urban areas forces to have there a large number of facilities, equipment, small forms of architecture, such as fountains that affect the solution of many functional, engineering, aesthetic problems and often determine the quality, expressive architectural and planning solution territory.

L'viv is the largest city in Western Ukraine and is the cultural center of the region. Parks, squares and streets are decorated with fountains of various types. After all, the city fountains should continue to exist, to be protected and transmitted to posterity as examples of art.

Different types of fountains that perform different roles are used in front of architectural objects in creating architectural and spatial composition of the city central squares, parks, areas of interest.

Thus, the city planning role involves linking form and design of the fountain with city planing situation and its characteristics. In particular, the shape of the fountain should match the architecture of the building or ensemble, or compositional axis should coincide with the axis of the fountain in square, public garden or logically complete it.

Utilitarian role is designed to improve the environment of human activity, to provide citizens with comfortable stay. Fountains cool and refresh air, rescue residents on hot days, showing a significant impact on the microclimate of the city. Sounds of water jets and fountains protect pedestrian space from highway noise (eg, a fountain near the Opera House).

Composite role takes into account all the rules of composition when designing and constructing fountains in urban environment. The significance is given to configurations of area, shape and size of the fountain (for example, four fountain in the Market Square).

Art and architectural and aesthetic role is associated with compositional role and can be achieved through external decorated fountains, both in architectural style and in drawing of fountain jets and rich in decorated buildings, including sculpture.

For decorative role that is associated with a compositional way of artistic and architectural role, jet fountains and sculptures are characteristic. In the jet fountains sheets of water are the main decorative element, while in the sculpture sheets of water are combined with sculpture or decorative elements (shells, bowls, etc.). Color and musical fountains are very spectacular (like a fountain near Forum L'viv "Ivasyk-Telesyk'').

Emotional and psychological role contributes to arise a variety of feelings by looking at the fountains, namely, fun, fear and so on.

Cognitive role is designed to help familiarize with different types of fountains, their history and satisfy informational interests of citizens (eg fountain "Romuald and Pelagea").

Sacred role symbolizes the role of faith in society. Fountains, containing sacred sculptures or religious elements, motifs can influence people's minds, cause resentment, feelings and emotions (eg fountain with the figure of the Virgin Mary).

Having examined fountains of L'viv, it could be stated that they play utilitarian, compositional, decorative, artistic, aesthetic, emotional, cognitive and sacred role in the structure of the city.

Key words

Lviv, urban environment, fountains, parks, gardens, squares

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