Visnyk LNAU: Agronomy 2020 №24: 123-127
Dynamics of formation of tuber yield and accumulation of starch by inter-variety hybrids of potato of various ripeness
P. Zaviriukha, Candidate of Agriculture (PhD)
M. Konovaliuk, leading specialist
Lviv National Agrarian University
The research studied peculiarities of the dynamics of accumulation tuber yield by hybrids of potatoes during their growing season in 2017–2018. The 9 new hybrids of medium-early, middle-ripe, and mid-late ripe groups, bred at Lviv NAU, were used for the research. While creating hybrids as initial parental forms for crosses, the researchers used potato varieties of Ukrainian breeding, i.e. Borodianska rozheva, Vodohrai, Volia, Zakhidna, Zov, Lishchyna, Oksamyt 99, Svitanok kyiivskyi and varieties of foreign breeding – Nevska (Russian Federation), Skarb (Republic of Belarus), Sante (Netherlands), Aminca (Netherlands), SVP (Netherlands). According to the standard, they used: for the middle-early group – the variety Vodohraj, the middle-aged – Volia and the middle-late – the variety Zakhidna.
The study of the dynamics of formation of the crop of inter-varietal potato hybrids was carried out by conducting five trial digs every 10 days, starting from the 60th day from their planting to the 100th day of vegetation.
It was established that in the group of middle-early forms, the most intensive and maximum accumulation of the tuber crop was decured by hybrid 14/9-30 [Zakhidna × (Zov × Nevska)], middle-aged forms – hybrids 14/16-2 [(Zakhidna × Aminca) × (Volia × Lishchyna)] and 15/5-19 [(Zakhidna × Sante) × (Volia × Lishchyna)] and middle-late – a hybrid 11/15-12 [Zakhidna × (Borodianska rozheva × Oksamyt)]. At the same time, their excess in productivity over the corresponding varieties-standards reached 44.9–58.1 % with the average productivity of one plant equal to 900–1200 g/bush. It was found that potato hybrids of different groups of biological ripeness, which were distinguished by intensive accumulation of harvest, were also characterized by intensive formation of the total number of tubers and, to a lesser extent, their size. Moreover, such pattern is characteristic for each of the terms of control digging. According to the research, the intensity of starch accumulation in potatoes and its absolute value depend on the biological ripeness of the potato hybrids, the weather conditions during the vegetation period of the plants, and the original parental forms that take part in their genealogy.
Therefore, the equality of different factors of potato cultivation (soil type, fertilizer, temperature, rainfall), the dynamics of formation of the tuber crop is determined by the biological (genotypic) features of a particular variety or hybrid form. In most cases, and especially in middle-aged and the middle-late inter-varietal hybrids of potatoes, the absolute value of plant productivity is determined by the number produced tubers and, to a lesser extent, by their size. In the course of the research, the scientists selected individual varietal hybrids of potatoes with a successful combination of both the number and size of tubers. The selected hybrid forms will be use to carry out further breeding work in accordance with its scheme for potato crop.
potato, selection, inter-varietal hybrids, crop formation, number of tubers, size of tubers, starch content
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